Amgen Ventures is a venture capital investment arm of Amgen Inc. specializing in investments in early and later stage companies. The firm primarily invests in the biotechnology sector with a focus on discovering and developing human therapeutics with a focus on oncology, inflammation, hematology, nephrology, metabolic disorders, neuroscience, and cardiovascular therapeutics. In oncology and hematology it focuses on novel therapeutics including signal transduction, cell cycle, and apoptosis; hematopoiesis including anemia, neutropenia, and stem cell mobilization; and supportive care including mucositis and cachexia. In nephrology the firm focuses on renal failure and hyperparathyroidism. For inflammation the firm focuses on rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, asthma and COPD, and osteoarthritis. Under cardiovascular, it focuses on acute coronary syndromes, dyslipidemia, and heart failure and under metabolic disorders it focuses on diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. The focus on neuroscience included pain including neuropathic and inflammatory, alzheimer's disease, parkinson's disease, sleep disorder, cognition, and schizophrenia. In discovery research and technology the firm focuses on early-stage drug discovery collaborations, innovative chemical entity collections, diagnostics and biomarkers, novel antibody platforms, assay biologicals and devices, and target-focused structural biology and computational tools. It primarily invests in the North America, Europe, and the United Kingdom. The firm typically invests between $2 million and $3 million per transaction and may invest up to $10 million per company. It prefers to have an ownership stake of less than 15 % in its portfolio companies. Amgen Ventures was founded in 2004 and is based in San Francisco, California with additional offices in Seattle, Washington; Thousand Oaks, California; and Cambridge, Massachusetts.